Education for all: high expectations or false hopes? Jacques Hallak. This paper was originally presented at the Conference on 'Primary Education. Pre-Jomtien'. Education for All achievements and challenges; EFA global monitoring report, Global Education Monitoring Report Team , UNESCO. O ri gi n a l:E n g l i s hWORLD DECLARAT I O NON EDUCATION FOR A L L a n dFRAMEWORK FOR A C T I O NTO MEETBASIC LEARNING NEEDS Adopted.
|Language:||English, Dutch, Portuguese|
|Genre:||Science & Research|
|ePub File Size:||18.42 MB|
|PDF File Size:||20.63 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Sign up for free]|
PDF | This paper begins with an exploration of the history of the international Education for All (EFA) programme and its tendency to overlook some marginalised. A Human Rights-Based Approach to. EDUCATION FOR ALL. A framework for the realization of children's right to education and rights within education. Education For All (EFA) is a global movement led by UNESCO aiming to meet the learning .. "Education For All: the globalization of learning targets" (PDF).
Azoulay is working hard to make sure all these goals and cooperation are kept in line to help better the present and future for children and other citizens. These partnerships are managed very carefully to reassure that the goals set in place are met.
UNESCO works in different ways with their partnerships such as collaboration, volunteers, advocacy, and consultations. By having these different ways of working with others, UNESCO is able to have many partnerships and have them globally. Some examples of those are education, natural sciences, oceans, social and human sciences, culture, communication and information, priority Africa, and crisis and transition.
The problem that comes from this is that every country is different and that reflects achieving these education goals. Countries differ in the quality of education due to economics and culture.
This is where is a great need to strengthen finances, resources, and technology. Technology is booming in this time and that has an effect on how much education students have access to globally. World Education Forum Dakar, Senegal, [ edit ] In , ten years later, the international community met again at the World Education Forum in Dakar , Senegal , an event which drew participants.
The forum took stock of the fact that many countries were far from having reached the goals established at the World Conference on Education for All in The participants agreed on the Dakar Framework for Action which re-affirmed their commitment to achieving Education for All by the year , and identified six key measurable education goals which aim to meet the learning needs of all children, youth and adults by Finally, the study recommends the country to undertake broad reflection on policies and practices to make the EFA goals viable.
Introduction At the beginning of the new millennium, April , Dakar- Senegal hosted a major global assessment meeting. It was the first and most crucial episode in education at the first light of the new millennium. It reviewed the progress towards achieving the goals set for basic education and the strategies adopted for overcoming obstacles and accelerating progress.
The meeting provided a platform for discussion to refocus attention on basic education and reinvigorate efforts to meet basic learning needs. The goals See Section1. The framework for action comprised of strategies and plans of action designed to meet both existing and emerging challenges Ibid.
This study therefore, critically examined the achievements made and shortfalls encountered by Tanzania Mainland towards achieving the six EFA goals since the on-set of the new millennium. It draws much of the contents from the most recent data on core basic education indicators as well as other publications. Background of the Problem The current global initiatives towards EFA can be traced back to the Jomtien Conference in Thailand although in many developing countries including Tanzania, the initiatives to provide education for all were promulgated from the early s.
It has been reported that the state of education in most developing countries before Jomtien was indeed bad in terms of falling rate of enrollment, decline in completion rates as well as low attainment in primary education Mrutu, The Jomtien Conference aimed at bringing together the international community to talk about ways of improving the education sector in most of the developing countries which was obviously in a very bad condition. The conference participants agreed and committed, among other things, to providing universal access to learning with a focus on equity, learning outcomes, enhancing the environment for learning and strengthening partnership by the year UNESCO, One decade later, in April the EFA signatory countries and other international community met in Dakar to review the progress towards achieving the goals set for basic education and the strategies adopted for overcoming obstacles and accelerating progress UNESCO, The assessment process provided opportunities for refocusing attention on basic education and reinvigorating efforts to meet basic learning needs.
Countries, regions and continents evaluated themselves, made comparisons across communities, programmes and strategies, and outlined the main accomplishments, shortfalls and difficulties. Along with this, through active interaction, emerged the six EFA goals and the Dakar Framework for Action comprising strategies and plans of action designed to meet both existing and emerging challenges.
By adopting the Dakar Framework for Action, participants re-affirmed the vision of the World Declaration on Education for All that was set and adopted in at the Jomtien Conference Ibid, p.
Improving all aspects of the quality of education and ensuring excellence of all so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills UNESCO, , p.
Education For All
Tanzania is also a signatory to these international EFA goals, and as such the country has engaged in various reforms to achieve them. In , the country won the United Nations award Education MDGs Award for its impressive progress towards attaining universal primary education, some five years ahead of the deadline set under the MDGs agreement Daily News, , September However, despite these impressive achievements in primary education, numerous gaps exist in the broader movement of attaining the EFA targets.
Therefore, it was felt that the time was ripe for this study to be undertaken in order to add knowledge in the EFA debate and help stakeholders in the country to implement, improve and help children to achieve their full potential. Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study was to review the achievements made and shortfalls encountered by Tanzania Mainland towards achieving the six EFA goals since the on-set of the new millennium.
Specific Objectives of the Study Specifically, the study intended to: identify the status and progress made in early childhood care and education i. Significance of the Study This study has both theoretical and practical significance. It is significant in the sense that the contained knowledge will contribute to the existing body of knowledge on the implementation of EFA programmes in Tanzania and other developing countries.
The study is intended to contribute to the EFA debate by highlighting the major achievements and shortfalls in the implementation of the six EFA goals. Moreover, the results and recommendations are expected to help educational policy makers, planners, administrators and other stakeholders to align their efforts and resources available in addressing key issues towards achieving EFA targets in the country.
Scope of the Study This study was confined to the review of achievements made and shortfalls encountered by Tanzania towards attaining the six EFA goals since the on-set of this millennium in In terms of geographical coverage, this study was delimited to Tanzania mainland only Zanzibar Isles as part of the United Republic of Tanzania was not included in this study. Research Methodology This study was based on documentary sources in which the researcher systematically and objectively researched evidences relevant to the study question in documents that were already in existence.
The use of documentary methods refers to the analysis of documents that contain information about the phenomenon under the study Mogalakwe, This research strategy was selected due to a number of factors namely: the nature of the study and the requirements of specific study objectives and the limitations of time and financial resources.
Documentary sources were included on the basis of the following criteria: i.
They focused on the EFA goals and the subsequent themes in Tanzania ii. They provided quantitative and qualitative information on the iii. They were published or reported in English v.
They were published or reported between and the present; except for policy documents reviewed in Section II in which documents published between  and the present were considered for review They report data on key EFA educational indicators The study excluded documentary sources that were: i. Editorial, commentary, book reviews and theoretical papers, ii. Not published in English, iii.
Not reporting about key education indicators. In reviewing the status and progress, more rigorous criteria were added on top of the above inclusion criteria for the review to adhere to the quality control criteria namely: authenticity, credibility, representativeness and meaning.
BEST data that forms large part of data source for this study are published by the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training hereafter MoEVT ; therefore they are official government data to be relied on. On top of that, because the nature and the scope of the study demanded national level data, therefore, the aforementioned sources were deemed useful and relevant. The searching activities were guided by the six EFA goals major themes that are Early Childhood Care and Education hereafter ECCE , universal primary education and gender, and learning programmes for life skills and literacy.
The evidence analyses were carried out by critically reviewing the achievements and shortfalls towards the attainment of the six EFA goals in Tanzania. Data were analyzed and presented in thematic statement formats. Organization of the Study This dissertation is organized into five Sections. Section I provides an account of the research problem and its context, and outlines the significance, scope and limitations of the study as well as the methodological approaches and conceptual issues adopted in the study.
Section II presents firstly the socio-economic, demographic and educational overview of Tanzania to indicate context in which EFA initiatives took place. Then it explains how the country tried its effort to achieve those goals.
Major policy reforms and initiatives in the education sector and other multi-sector initiatives which have impacted on the state of the current education system have been highlighted in this section.
It includes access to schooling and the participation of students by gender in pre-primary and primary level programmes. Meanwhile it describes the participation of youth and adults in the non-formal education hereafter NFE sub-sector.
Although remarkable achievements have been made, shortfalls still remain. Finally, Section V presents a summary and conclusion of the study. The section also gives recommendations for action. Then, key definitions and concepts were adopted and developed to help define the scope of the review. The below definitions and concepts were used to devise the search strategy and inform the inclusion-exclusion criteria.
The forum participants identified six key education goals See Section 1. However, there is no specific policy for EFA goals and targets. The EFA goals and targets have been incorporated in national education policies and broader government policies.
The assessment of EFA progress at the national level is customarily done by the National EFA Assessment Group set up by a decree of the minister for national education and vocational training Ibid.
Since EFA issues are incorporated in other national educational policies and programmes, there is no regular reporting specifically for EFA. It was decided in that way because some of the goals closely relate to each other. The second theme, universal primary education and gender, expatiates the EFA goal 2 and 5.
Whereas the third theme, learning programmes for life skills and literacy, expounds EFA goal 3 and 4.
Due to the fact that, provision of quality education is the requirement of all forms and levels of education in the country, the idea has been incorporated in all the above described three themes. Limitations of the Study Several limitations of this study exist. The nature and scope of the study as well the documentary sources included in the study made it possible to use the national level aggregated data.
Therefore, this might have not depicted the concrete portrait of the status and progress of EFA initiatives in the country particularly in meeting the learning needs of the socio-economically and geographically marginalized groups.
This limitation points to the need for further research in the subject that will take into account these disparities as far as EFA is concerned. The exclusion of studies not published in English possibly excluded potentially valuable data sources from inclusion.Official Record, op.
Everyone has the right to education. The state and dynamics of these systems have had serious implications for the attainment of EFA goals. In , ten years later, the international community met again at the World Education Forum in Dakar , Senegal , an event which drew participants. This study therefore, critically examined the achievements made and shortfalls encountered by Tanzania Mainland towards achieving the six EFA goals since the on-set of the new millennium.
The results indicated that the country has attained momentous progress in universalizing primary education, closing the gender gap and meeting the learning needs of youth and adults through non-formal delivery modes. This page was last edited on 8 April , at